Apartheid Museum

The Rise of Black Consciousness

The earliest challenges to apartheid came from a new generation of black youth who came of age in the 1960s.

Inspired by leaders such as Bantu Stephen Biko, they gave voice to a philosophy of black psychological emancipation, black pride and black self-assertion.

Quick Facts

  • Steve Biko founded the Black Consciousness Movement while still a medical student at the University of Natal.
  • The Black Consciousness movement of South Africa instigated a social, cultural, and political awakening in the country in the 1970s.
  • Biko was murdered in detention in 1977 because he became such a threat to the apartheid state,
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    Permanent Exhibition